PDF | This article develops the affirmative biopolitics that Roberto Esposito intimates in his trilogy – Communitas, Immunitas and Bíos. The key to this affirmative. Roberto Esposito | Istituto Italiano di Scienze Umane . If communitas is what links its members together in a reciprocal commitment to donate, immunitas, on the. Biopolitics: From Supplement to Immanence: In Dialogue with Roberto Esposito’s Trilogy: Communitas, Immunitas, Bíos; A. Kiarina Kordela · Cultural Critique.
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What I am saying is that the radical espposito between a kind of negative interpretation, if not apocalyptic, and another, on the contrary, notably optimistic, even euphoric interpretation of biopolitics, has its roots in a semantic gap, already present in the Foucauldian works, between two layers of sense never perfectly integrated together within this concept, and rather destined to split it in two reciprocally incompatible parts, or at least compatible only through a violent subjugation [ assoggettamento ] of one layer to the dominion of the other.
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In Dialogue with Roberto Esposito’s Trilogy: As I have already mentioned, Foucault himself never chose between these two extreme possibilities, oscillating between one and the other, never reaching a definitive resolution. See Roberto Esposito, Immunitas. The law itself arose in Rome as private law, destined to ratify in a juridically codified shape the originary appropriation of things, and even of certain human beings reduced to the status of things, by those who by force proclaimed themselves as the owners.
It has often been wondered what is, and whether there is, a true specificity of the category of biopolitics, since politics has always dealt, somehow, with life even in its most strict biological sense. In my opinion, the very idea of community is itself the key to avoid any impolitical drift of the concept and safeguard its political pregnancy, but only on the condition of going back through its history, to the Latin etymology of communitas and, before that, to the term from which this one derives, that is that of munus.
Subjects Series Authors Blog About. And yet, does biopolitics arise with modernity, as Foucault was inclined to believe, ikmunitas does it have a longer and deeper genealogy?
Aldama, chela sandoval, and peter j. This discourse presented itself as a radical deconstruction of the way the term-concept of community has been adopted by the whole twentieth century philosophy, first immynitas the organicist sociology of Gemeinschaftthen by the various ethics of communication, and lastly by the American neo-communitarianism.
From here derives that double bind inherent in the immunitarian dynamics [ dinamiche immunitarie ] —already typical of modernity, and today more and more extended to all the spheres of individual and collective experience, real or imaginary.
It is at the end of the Eighties that in France and Italy a discourse on the category of community has been developed. With the invention of the State, that is to say the biggest political dispositifmodernity had already tended to exclude the common good, that ewposito that of everybody, or at least to progressively reduce it in favour of a dialectic between private and public, gradually destined to occupy the whole social scene.
Community was understood, indeed, as that substance able to connect certain subjects with each other by giving them a common identity.
From Supplement to Immanence: Biopolitics and Philosophyin “the continuum of immunity and community ,” Esposito both differentiates himself from other jmmunitas of biopolitics and “synthesizes Agamben’s negative vision of biopolitics with Hardt and Negri’s notion of the common as signaling” precisely “a new affirmative biopolitics” B, xxix.
This is, of course, a difficult struggle —especially because we should not make the eeposito of abandoning the public space in favour of exposito common, risking at the same time facilitating the privatization process. The negative meaning which from time to time has connoted the biopolitical paradigm, is not the outcome of the violent subjugation that power exerts from the external on life, rather it is the contradictory way through which life tries to defend itself from the perils by which it is threatened, this way contradicting other, equally important, needs.
Sao Tome and Principe.
Immunitas: The Protection and Negation of Life
Lexically or etymologically, the common element of both immunits and community is ” munus ,” whose meaning is “an office—a task, obligation, duty also in the sense of a gift to be repaid. This dynamic of appropriation was joined, in modernity, by that of making public the goods assigned to the control and usufruct of the State organisms. This becomes even more relevant when, with the current biopolitical turn, each good, whether material or intellectual, corporeal or technological, comes to regard, directly or indirectly, espowito sphere of biological life, including in it intellectual and linguistic resources, the symbolic and imaginary, needs and desires.
Violence against violence 3. Nevertheless, the meaning of munus at the same time allowed me to take a step forward, or, better said, a lateral immuunitas, which re-opened a way towards the political dimension.
By subtracting community from the horizon of subjectivity, Nancy has made its articulation with politics extremely problematic —if only because of the evident difficulty of imagining a kind of politics totally external to the subjective dimension— thus keeping the community in a necessarily impolitical dimension. The production of spaces, spheres, and common dimensions, more and more threatened by the intrusiveness of their opposite, must be placed together with the practices of immunitae the immunitarian binds.
On the basis of this self-contradictory intertwining of community and immunity, Esposito grants absolute primacy to immunity over any other explanatory category regarding modern immuniyas, arguing:. This is nothing but the negative side —as it is an individual subtraction— of a strategy which must be played even within its positive side. But the function of law as a form of immunization points to a more disturbing consideration.
It is precisely in this context that the necessity of an affirmative biopolitics reappears with a new urgency. Therefore, the exodus from these dispositifs, or espoeito deactivation, always involves a double result: Each one of them opposes itself in a different way to the semantic of the common, that is in the different but convergent shapes of appropriation, privatization and immunization.
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