24 jan. Eletrônica Analógica Aula Teste: Instrumentos de medição eletro-eletrônicos. Professor: Ivanildo Antonio da Silva Junior Introdução Eletrônica. Veja grátis o arquivo Eletrônica Analógica enviado para a disciplina de Física II Categoria: Trabalhos – 28 – Veja grátis o arquivo Eletrônica Analógica enviado para a disciplina de Física II Categoria: Trabalhos – 4 –
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Our sincerest appreciation must be extended to the instructors who have used the text and sent in comments, corrections, and suggestions. We also want to thank Rex Davidson, Production Editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping together the many detailed aspects of production. We wish to thank those individuals who have shared their suggestions and evaluations of this text throughout its many editions. The comments from these individuals have enabled us to present Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory in this Seventh Edition:.
It is now some 50 years since the first transistor was introduced on December 23, For those of us who experienced the change from glass envelope tubes to the solid-state era,it still seems like a few short years ago. The first edition of this analogiica contained heavy coverage of tubes,with succeeding editions involving the important decision of how much coverage should be dedicated to tubes and how much to semiconductor devices.
Eletrônica Analógica by ivanildo antonio on Prezi
It no longer seems valid to mention tubes at all or to compare the advantages of one over the other—we are firmly in the solid-state era. The miniaturization that has resulted leaves us to wonder about its limits. Complete systems now appear on wafers thousands of times smaller than the single element of earlier networks. New designs and eletornica surface weekly. The engineer becomes more and more limited in his or her knowledge of the broad range of advances— it is difficult enough simply to stay abreast of the changes in one area of research or development.
We have also reached a point at which the primary purpose of the container is simply to provide some means of handling the device or system and to provide a mechanism for attachment to the remainder of the network. Miniaturization appears to be limited by three factors each of which will be addressed in this text: The elerronica electronic device to be introduced is called the diode.
It is the simplest of semiconductor devices but plays a very vital role in electronic systems,having characteristics that closely match those of a simple switch. It will appear in a range of applications,extending from the simple to the very complex. In addition to the details of its construction and characteristics,the very important data and graphs to be found on specification sheets will also be covered to snalogica an understanding of the terminology employed and to demonstrate the wealth of information anaoogica available from manufacturers.
It refers to any device or system that has ideal characteristics—perfect in every way. It provides a basis for comparison,and it reveals where improvements can epetronica be made.
The ideal diodeis a two-terminaldevice having the symbol and characteristics shown in Figs. Ideally,a diode will conduct current in the direction defined by the arrow in the symbol and act like an open circuit to any attempt to establish current in the opposite direction.
The characteristics of an ideal diode are those of a switch that can conduct current in only one direction. In the description of the elements to follow,it is critical that the various letter symbols,voltage polarities,and current directionsbe defined. If the polarity eketronica the applied voltage is consistent with that shown in Fig. If a reverse voltage is applied,the characteristics to the left are pertinent. If the current through the diode has the direction indicated in Fig.
One of the important parameters for the diode is the resistance at the point or re- gion of operation. Consider the region of negatively applied potential third quadrant of Fig. Eletrnica ideal diode, therefore, is an open circuit analkgica the region of nonconduction.
In general,it is relatively simple to determine whether a diode is in the region of conduction eletronnica nonconduction simply by noting the direction of the current IDestablished by an applied voltage. For conventional flow opposite to that of electron flowif the resultant diode current has the same direction as the arrowhead of the diode symbol,the diode is operating in the conducting region as depicted in Fig.
If the resulting current has the opposite direction,as shown in Fig. As indicated earlier,the primary purpose of this section is to introduce the characteristics of an ideal device for comparison with the characteristics of the commercial variety.
As we progress through the next few sections,keep the following questions in mind:. The label semiconductoritself provides a hint as to its characteristics. The prefix semiis normally applied to eletornica range of levels midway between two limits. The term conductor is applied to any material that will support a generous flow of charge when a voltage source of limited magnitude is applied across its terminals.
Electronic Devices – Eletronica analogica
An insulator is a material that offers a very low level of conductivity under pressure from an applied voltage source. A semiconductor, therefore, is a material analoglca has a conductivity level somewhere between the extremes of an insulator and a conductor.
Inversely related to the conductivity of a material is its resistance to the flow of charge,or current. That is,the higher the conductivity level,the lower the resistance level. In tables,the term resistivity ,Greek letter rho is often used when comparing the resistance levels of materials. In metric units,the resistivity of a material is measured in -cm or -m.
The units of -cm are derived from the substitution of the units for each quantity of Fig. In fact,if the area of Fig. This fact will be helpful to remember as we compare resistivity levels in the discussions to follow.
Although you may be familiar with the electrical properties of copper and. Conductor Semiconductor Insulator mica from your past studies,the characteristics of the semiconductor materials of germanium Ge and silicon Si may be relatively new. As you will find in the chapters to follow,they are certainly not the only two semiconductor materials. They are,however,the two materials that have received the broadest range of interest in the development of semiconductor devices.
In recent years the shift has been steadily toward silicon and away from germanium,but germanium is still in modest production. Electronic Devices Bento Alves row Enviado por: Parte 1 de 6. Eletronica analogica Apostila sobre eletronica analogica 1.