PDF | The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant nature of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark (EETA) on. Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Properties of Terminalia arjuna L. Extracts . Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali, Department of Applied Chemistry. Barks extracts of four different trees (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, .
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February 04, ; Accepted Date: February 18, ; Published Date: J Food Process Technol 5: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This work was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of leaves and stem bark extracts of Terminalia antioxidxnt arjuna antioxkdant in aqueous ethanol water: The extraction yields of extracts were ranged from 6.
It was observed that arjuna extracts contained appreciable amount of TPC 6.
Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Properties of Terminalia arjuna L. Extracts
It can be concluded from the results that arjuna extracts were good source of natural antioxidants. The arjuna extracts being a good source of natural antioxidants should be further investigated to explore the chemistry of these extract. The antioxidants are molecules capable of decreasing or preventing the activitj of substrate molecules. The oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions and subsequently can cause a large number of cardiovascular diseases in humans [ 1 ].
Antioxidant compounds terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves [ 2 ]. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butyl hydroxyquinone and propyl gallate being used in food products to prevent oxidative damages in terms terminapia food spoilage and rancidity in fatty foods [ 3 ] had been band in advanced countries and being discouraged even in developing countries due to their perceived carcinogenic attributes and other toxic properties [ 4 ].
Moreover, there is a growing awareness among consumers regarding food additive arjhna [ 5 ]. There is an ongoing quest in progress to search natural antioxidants from plant extracts as a safe alternate of synthetic antioxidants [ 3 ]. Many plant based compounds such as ascorbic acid, polyphenols, vitamin E, carotenes, xynthophylls and tannins had been investigated for their antioxidant potential to be used in different food products to improve their shelf life and functional properties activty 6 ].
The plant Terminalia arjuna Termina,ia.
The plant is very rich source of natural antioxidants due to which it has been extensively investigated for its uses in both Ayurvedic and Yunani systems of medicine [ 78 ]. In Ayurvedic system, it is styptic, anthelmintic, alexiteric, tonic, and useful in fractures, heart diseases, urinary discharges, biliousness, ulcers, asthma, tumors, anemia and excessive perspiration etc. Arjuna is used both externally and internally in gleets and urinary discharges as well as expectorant, aphrodisiac, tonic and diuretic [ 10 ].
Terminalia arjuna based phytochemicals are considered as one of the best heart tonic [ 7 ] therefore, it can be used on daily bases as tonic for healthy cardiovascular system.
The active components of Terminalia arjuna are tannins, triterpenoid saponin arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin, and arjunglycosides [ 11 ].
Flavonoids arjunone, arjunolone, luteolingallic acid, ellagic acid, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidines OPCsphytosterols, calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper [ 10 ]. A number of studies are available on the antioxidant activity and medicinal importance of this plant worldwide, whereas, in Pakistan no remarkable research work has been conducted while the plant is easily available due to favorable agro-climatic conditions for its growth.
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Therefore, this project was designed to investigate bioactive components phenolics and flavonoidsfree radical scavenging property and antioxidant activity of extracts from barks and leaves of arjuna plant indigenous to Pakistan. All the chemicals and reagents used in this research were of analytical actuvity and used were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co.
The bark and leave samples of Terminalia arjuna L. The specimens was further identified and authenticated from Dr.
Qasim Ali, Assistant Professor of Botany. Authenticated samples of leaves and bark were separately packed in polythene bags and transferred to the Natural Products Research Laboratory, Government College University Faisalabad.
Upon arrival in the laboratory the leaves and stem bark samples were washed thoroughly with tap water to remove any wastes and dust particles. The remaining water in the plant material was removed using paper towel by pressing on activiyy gently.
The stem barks and leaves samples were dried by keeping them in open air under shade for three weeks till constant weight termjnalia achieved. Two different solvent systems aqueous ethanol water: Briefly, 15 gram of ground material was taken in conical flask followed by the addition of mL of each solvent terminala.
The extraction was executed for 24 hours in acttivity orbital shaker Gallenkamp, U. K at ambient temperature following the previously established method [ 4 ]. The concentrated extract was allowed to dry at room temperature. The percentage yield of the extracts was calculated by using the following formula. The estimation of total phenolic contents TPC was carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method [ 12 ].
Briefly, 50mg of dry mass of extracts was mixed with 0. Acivity mixture was kept at room temperature for 10 minutes, and then 1. The amounts of total phenolic were calculated using a calibration curve Gallic acid ppm. The total flavonoids contents TFC were determined following the previously established spectrometric method [ 13 ]. After 5 minutes, 0. Antioxidqnt solution was mixed and the absorbance was measured at nm using a spectrophotometer U, Hitachi Instruments Inc,Tokyoa, Japan.
TFC amounts were expressed as catechin equivalents per hundred grams of dry matter. The antioxidant capacities of arjuna extracts were also evaluated by measuring their free radical scavenging abilities to 1,1 —diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl DPPH stable following the previously established method [ 14 ] with slight modifications.
Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Properties of Terminalia arjuna L.Extracts
The samples from 6. The absorbance of the resulting solutions and the blank were recorded after 1 hour at room temperature. The sample containing butylated hydroxytoulene BHT was used as a positive control. All the samples were analyzed in triplicates.
Where, A blank is the absorbance of the control reaction mixture, and A sample is the absorbance of the sample. Antioxidant capacities of extracts of were also determined in terms of measurements of inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system [ 6 ].
The mixture was diluted up to 25 mL with distilled water. The degree of oxidation was terminalla following ammonium thiocyanate method [ 15 ]. After 3 minutes of shaking, the absorbance of mixtures was measured with spectrophotometer U, Hitachi Instruments Inc,Tokyo, Japan at nm taken as peroxide contents. A linoleic acid control was performed without the extracts. Sample containing synthetic antioxidant, BHT was used as positive control. Percent inhibition of linoleic acid was calculated as.
Reducing power of extract was determined according to the procedure described previously [ 15 ]. Dry matter extracts mg was mixed with 5. The upper aruna of solution 5. Sample containing BHT served as positive control. All the experiments were conducted in three replicates and analyzed in triplicate.
The percentage yield of the different arjuna extracts was found in the range of 6. It was observed that the stem bark extract prepared in methanol, exhibited the highest yield The highest yield of methanolic stem bark extract as established in the present analysis revealed the greater efficiency of methanol as extracting solvent and that might be attributed to the high polarity of the methanol: The earlier investigations in the relevant field had clearly demonstrated that methanol was a promising solvent for extraction of antioxidants from natural products [ 16 ].
Our results in close agreement to the findings of some previous researcher regarding the yield of extract prepared in different blends of methanol solvent [ 16 ]. A raising trend in the yield of antioxidant extracts has been observed with increasing polarity of solvent suggesting the polar natural of antioxidants compounds.
Methanol is generally employed for the extraction of antioxidant components due to their polarity and good solubility with many antioxidant components [ 17 ]. Ethanol showed relatively low yields as compared to methanol, however, ethanol is even then preferred solvent to extract antioxidant compounds due to it lower toxicity.
Total phenolic contents of extracts was determined by Folin- Ciocalteu reagent due to its high specificity for the polyphenolic compounds present in plant extracts as it did not interact with the other phytochemicals due to a complex formation between reducing species and phosphors-molybdic tungstate. The data regarding the total phenolic contents obtained from different extracts ranged from 6.
The maximum amount of TPC Our findings regarding TPC of arjuna extracts were found in a close agreement with the findings 7. The present results suggested that the methanolic extracts of arjuna are more active regarding the phenolic antioxidant compounds that could be exploited as potent source of natural antioxidants for functional food and pharmaceutics. The data regarding the total flavonoid contents, 1.
The maximum amount of flavonoids 5. For extraction of flavonoids compounds, ethanol has been proved very appropriate solvents due to their low toxicity [ 13 ]. Extraction yield was dependant on the chemical composition of the bark of tree, as the phenolic and flavonoids contents investigated in the bark extracts Terminalia arjuna from different areas [ 18 ]. Our finding regarding flavonoids in the present study were comparable with the findings of other researchers [ 16 ] worked on antioxidant activity of different plants including Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Eugenia jambolana and Azadirachta indica using different solvent blends of ethanol, methanol and water.
Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using stable DPPH free radical ? Activity of extract increases with the increase in concentration of phenolic compounds. Our findings regarding IC 50 values of arjuna extracts can be correlated with IC 50 values The data regarding the percentage inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system from arjuna extracts prepared in different solvent systems is presented in Figure 5. The maximum percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation Percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation by synthetic antioxidant BHT was taken as control and compared with arjuna extracts.
BHT provided significantly higher percent inhibition Our results are comparable with those ranged from The results suggested that extracts of Terminalia arjuna L. The reducing power of a compound is related to its electron transfering ability and may serve as a significant indicator of its antioxidant activity [ 20 ]. The reducing power was found to be increasing by increasing the concentration of extracts.
The different extracts from arjuna exhibited a close dependent reducing power and it was observed that reducing power of extracts from different extracts varied to some extent and found in the range of 0. Our results of present study are in close agreement with the findings 0. In the present study, it was observed that methanol was an efficient solvent and stem bark extracts of arjuna were more rich in antioxidant compounds. Reducing power of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of arjuna at different concentrations.
It can be concluded from the results of the present study that the antioxidant activity of Terminalia arjuna L extracts varied considerably depending on the nature of extracting solvents as well as the nature of raw materials to be extracted.